Managing International Projects – Part 8

August 1, 2017

This is the eighth in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with risk management.

Tips for International Projects

  • Conduct risk assessment periodically
  • Look for risks specific to each culture represented
  • Insist on periodic issue summaries
  • Build cultural awareness into your risk management scenarios

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

Risk Management is one of the most important elements in managing international projects.  The Four Variables of International Projects can help project teams identify many of the risks they are likely to encounter in the international arena.  A Risk Management Plan is useful in high-context cultures, where communicating is best done on a personal more informal basis and in low-context cultures, where concrete data is valued.

The Four Variables can be used for establishing preventive actions and Risk Management Scenarios to assure that issues don’t happen, and for planning contingent actions to manage issues that do occur.  Potential risks aren’t always readily evident in international projects.  The Four Variables can help surface some of these hidden challenges.

What issues could impede progress toward the project outcome and how serious and probable are they?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What multi-cultural issues might be surfaced within this project by applying the Four Variables of International Projects?
  • Is there enough cultural diversity on the team to provide in-depth risk identification?
  • How can the Four Variables help identify the seriousness of possible risks and probability of them occurring?
  • How well is the team probing behind the obvious in identifying possible international project risks?

What can be done to prevent each key issue from occurring and what can be done if each key issue arises?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What is the team’s plan for preventing risks surfaced by the Four Variables of International Projects?
  • What is the team’s plan for managing those risks if they occur?
  • How do distance, communication challenges and other global factors impact the team’s risk management planning?
  • How will these challenges be managed?

Have the risk management elements been built into the project plan?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • How well have the international risk management elements been built into the project plan?
  • Are the Four Variables being kept in mind in communicating the risk management action elements?
  • How well have the cultural implications of the risk management action elements been assessed and communicated?

Example:  A South American Customer has asked your firm to help in designing a new product for consumers in their country.  Team members selected for their awareness of the Customer’s cultural perspective have met with Customer representatives.  In addition, a Customer representative is a member of the project team.  Much data has been assembled on the Customer’s needs, constraints and success criteria.  Assumptions have been examined—for the Customer and for team members.  Even so, you as the team leader, are still concerned about possible risks within this international project.  For this reason, you bring the team together to brainstorm possible risks beyond those already identified.  You take a few minutes to brief team members on the Four Variables of International Projects, with special emphasis on context and power/status issues.  You are glad you held the session.  It turns out that information paths inside the Customer organization are extremely complex.  In addition, the information needs and information paths inside a number of  your supplier organizations are also quite complicated.  Moreover, two new individuals are identified as strong influencers in the Customer organization.  You create a multi-cultural  sub-team to develop prevention and contingency plans to manage these risks.

Managing International Projects – Part 7

July 5, 2017

This is the seventh in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with communication.

Tips for International Projects

  • Establish and maintain an information distribution network
  • Use teleconferencing and video conferencing to augment personal contact
  • Respect time zone differences when scheduling meetings and responses to requests
  • Assign multi-cultural accountability for tracking performance indicators
  • Plan for the absence of key people at important meetings
  • Use the informal communication network when implementing project changes

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

Effective communication is simultaneously one of the greatest challenges in managing international projects and one of the most effective tools in ensuring success in such projects.  All four of the Key Variables of International Projects impact communication, with information paths being especially significant.  Informal communication can be an important factor in project management within high-context cultures, where great emphasis is placed on the sharing of information face-to-face through networks of long-term relationships.  Formal communication can figure prominently in sharing of project information within low-context cultures, where emphasis may be on the substance of messages rather than on how or from whom they are delivered.  Distribution Networks should be reviewed regularly for cultural appropriateness.  Information recipients should be polled to ensure they are receiving the information they need and want, in ways they consider appropriate.  Time, distance and media availability issues must be managed.

In the same way, proposed changes within the project should be monitored carefully for multi-cultural issues.  Actions should be developed that help support change initiatives.  Strong influencers, especially within high-context cultures, should be managed carefully.

How will we ensure that project team members get the information they need on time?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What are the unique communication needs for this international project?
  • How can the Four Variables of International Projects help us identify and manage these needs?
  • Who is accountable for identifying these needs and establishing plans to meet them?
  • Who are the strong influencers for the project and what are their multi-cultural communication requirements?
  • How do delivery issues, such as distance, global time differences, media availability (i.e., e-mail, video teleconference, etc.) impact development of a strong project communication network?

How will we promote appropriate formal and informal communication?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What do the Four Variables of International Projects tell us about the formal and informal communication needs of key project players?
  • What are the informal communication needs of stakeholders from high-context cultures?
  • What are the formal communication needs of stakeholders from low-context cultures?
  • What unique information paths must be identified and managed for formal and informal communication?

How will we know that changes to the project plan are being recognized and managed?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • How are change needs entered into the multi-national communication system?
  • How is effectiveness of change communication being monitored?
  • Who is accountable for identifying and managing gaps in the communication system?
  • What are the unique multi-cultural communication needs of strong influencers?

Example:  The Korean supplier of several key design prototypes for your project is consistently late with deliveries.  The project team regularly e-mails updated information to this supplier, including schedule changes.  The missed deadlines are causing problems with your Project Customer, a deadline-conscious Canadian firm.  You appoint a study team with multi-cultural representation to meet with the Korean supplier and seek remedies to the delivery problems.  During an orientation meeting, you brief study-team members on the Four Variables of International Projects, reminding them that Korea is a high-context culture.  As a result, members of the supplier organization may have strong needs for personal, relationship-driven communication.  You also suggest that the team carefully map information paths through the organization.  The study team reports that the e-mail messages to the Korean supplier organization aren’t consistently getting past senior middle managers to the necessary project planners and designers.  New communication systems are designed.  Several key people within the Korean organization are designated to be responsible for personally communicating scheduling information to appropriate individuals down to the operating level.

Managing International Projects – Part 6

June 1, 2017

This is the sixth in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with managing project metrics.

Tips for International Projects

  • Use multi-cultural teams to create performance indicators
  • Validate performance indicators with multi-cultural players
  • Ensure that strong influencers agree to performance indicators
  • Assign multi-cultural accountability for tracking performance indicators
  • Plan culturally appropriate responses when performance indicators reveal issues
  • Use measurement units (e.g., financial, distance, etc.) preferred by the Project Customer and/or sponsor

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

Establishing clear measures for project performance, agreed to by all players, is essential in successfully managing international projects.  The project team must ensure that measurements are appropriate to the cultures involved, are understood by all players and are effectively tracked over the lifetime of the project.  Team members must also ensure that good corrective action is taken when the measurements indicate that some aspect of the project is off track.  Prevention and contingency plans should be in place to handle such challenges as quickly as possible.  The Four Key Variables of International Projects should be consulted extensively in establishing tracking mechanisms and in managing issues surfaced by the tracking process.

How will we know that the project outcome and Customer requirements have been met?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What multi-cultural power/status issues may arise in establishing measures?
  • What plans are in place to manage these issues?
  • How clear are the performance indicators for international Customers and suppliers?
  • What multi-cultural responses have been planned to manage issues if performance indicators aren’t met?

For each critical transaction, what are the key performance indicators?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What multi-cultural strong influencers may have an impact on measurement planning for the critical hand-offs?
  • Who on the team is responsible for tracking performance measures within the relevant cultural groups?
  • Are these people well coached in the meaning and use of the Four Key Variables of International Projects?
  • What response systems are in place if measurements indicate multi-cultural issues within one or more of the key hand-offs?

Example:  Members of the planning team for an international project have identified the key hand-offs in their Network Diagram.  They know how important objective performance indicators are in ensuring that the project stays on track, especially among key players representing diverse cultures.  For that reason, a special sub-team with multi-cultural membership creates appropriate performance indicators, especially for critical hand-offs.  The group will obtain firm agreement on performance indicators from significant project players.  The group will also create and monitor tracking mechanisms.  As part of communication planning, key players will get appropriate tracking information.  The entire project team will ensure effective responses are made to issues surfaced by the measures.

Managing International Projects – Part 5

May 2, 2017

This is the fifth in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with managing project hand-offs.

Tips for International Projects

  • Encourage Customers/suppliers for all hand-offs to communicate with each other
  • Make deliverables for each hand-off explicit
  • Get strong clarity on performance indicators for international project hand-offs
  • Develop a network of people with multi-cultural insights

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

The Four Key Variables of International Projects can be extremely helpful in avoiding problems with key hand-offs involving multiple cultural perspectives.  By definition, key hand-offs are those critical transactions that are especially important to project success.  Because of their high visibility and importance, these same key hand-offs can be potential magnets for attention from strong influencers and others operating within a variety of cultural systems.  As is often the case in the international arena, the presence or potential impact of these strong influencers may not be readily apparent until viewed within the context of the Four Key Variables of International Projects.

Probing for cultural influences on key hand-offs before challenges occur can have substantial rewards.  Time and dollars can be saved in the long run, even though additional efforts may be needed in the short-term to detect cultural influences.  Team members should be especially diligent in establishing clear Customer requirements and performance indicators for all key hand-offs within international projects.

What are the key hand-offs (transactions) that must be closely monitored during implementation?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What ordinary transactions in the project might have key hand-off status in the international arena?
  • What measures have been taken to pay special attention to these international key hand-offs?

Have project team members clarified requirements with their individual suppliers and Customers?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What multi-cultural power/status issues may arise within any of the key hand-offs?
  • What plans are in place to manage these issues?
  • Who are the strong influencers in the critical hand-offs and what might be their cultural perspective?
  • What plans are in place to identify these strong influencers and manage their multi-cultural needs?
  • How clear are the performance indicators for Customers and suppliers within these key hand-offs?
  • What multi-cultural responses have been planned to       manage issues if performance indicators aren’t met?

Example:  A project team must get help from its organization’s locations throughout the world to meet the needs of a Customer headquartered in Spain.  The team has met to determine the key hand-offs and discover that several of them involve Customers from Germany and Sweden, who must depend on suppliers from France and Japan.  Because the team has been thoroughly briefed on the Four Key Variables of International Projects, several brainstorming sessions are conducted to identify potential issues within these critical transactions.  A sub-team is created to probe the context, power/status and information path requirements of the French and Japanese suppliers and their German and Swedish Customers.  Representatives from each of the Customer and supplier groups have agreed to help validate plans coming from the sub-team and later to help implement the resulting plans.  All parties to the process agree that special attention should be paid to establishing clear performance indicators.

Managing International Projects – Part 4

April 12, 2017

This is the fourth in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with plans, schedules and budgets.

Tips for International Projects

  • Pay close attention to multi-cultural issues impacting milestones
  • Allow for exchange rate fluctuation on international financial transfers
  • Allow additional time for steps involving delivery of materials through customs
  • Identify and assign actions that ensure support of strong influencers

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

Plans, schedules and budgets need special attention in international projects to ensure that concerns surfaced by the Four Key Variables of International Projects are addressed effectively.  Each step on the Network Diagram should be tested against the Four Variables.  Where concerns arise, additional risk prevention or contingency elements should be added as part of the Network Diagram.

The cultural diversity of the project team can be especially valuable in the Network Diagram testing process.  Team members must listen carefully to what colleagues have to say about the cultural needs of Customer and supplier representatives, strong influencers and other project players.  When problems occur related to the Four Variables, the team should immediately seek help from those with appropriate cultural insights, inside or outside the team.  Time and Power/Status issues should be monitored in international projects.  Customer and supplier views of deadlines are likely to vary according to cultural context.  The close relationship between money and power in organizations means the team should carefully test the cultural appropriateness of all budgeting decisions.

To implement this project, who should do what, by when?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • How well has the team tested for the multi-cultural impact of proposed actions?
  • What measures are in place to manage potential multi-cultural issues arising from action plans?
  • Has the team considered potential multi-cultural issues in estimating time duration for the action elements?
  • What prevention and contingency plans are in place to manage such time-related issues?

What actions should be taken to ensure support of strong influence stakeholders?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • Has the team tested for the presence of strong influencers, using the Four Key Variables of International Projects as a guide?
  • What plans have been developed to manage the involvement of strong influencers representing a variety of cultures?
  • Do those responsible for implementing the strong-influencer plans have the multi-cultural awareness needed to do an effective job?
  • What prevention and contingency plans are in place to manage the emergence of unexpected strong influencers across the life of the project?

What are the costs associated with this project plan and schedule?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What prevention and contingency plans are in place to manage multi-cultural cost-estimating challenges?
  • Do our procurement plans consider possible multi-cultural context, power/status, time or information path issues?
  • Does our cost planning consider multi-national currency exchange, tax, import/export and other international legal or monetary challenges?
  • What are our plans to handle such challenges if they occur?

Example:  A project for a Customer with branches in six countries on three continents has generated a number of challenges, especially in estimating time and cost for individual activities.  Time commitments for action step completion seem to have different meanings in different global areas.  Costs seem to rise in unexpected ways in some countries and regions.

Fortunately, the team leader has international project experience and is familiar with the Four Key Variables of International Projects.  He knows things are seldom what they appear to be when dealing with a variety of cultural perspectives.

For that reason he asks lots of questions about action elements, especially those involving time and costs.  He knows there will be unexpected problems, no matter how much advance planning was done.  When unexpected problems arise, he immediately pulls together team members with insights into the cultures involved.  When such expertise isn’t available on the team, he finds the right people from other parts of the organization, or from outside the organization if necessary.  The team keeps an especially close watch on cultural issues that might emerge around project milestones.

Managing International Projects – Part 3

March 14, 2017

This is the third in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with project teams and stakeholders.

Tips for International Projects

  • Pay special attention to the cultural needs of strong influencers
  • Seek cultural diversity on your team
  • Use the team’s diversity for insights about project players
  • When you think you are sure about a player’s cultural needs, check further
  • Develop a network of people with multi-cultural insights

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book Global Work.

Selecting and obtaining the right team members for international projects can be especially challenging.  Maintaining good team and Customer communication across great distances is an obvious recruiting concern.  In addition, there are all the other international project issues—language, legal variations, logistics, and of course, cultural differences.  The testing questions provided here are designed to help team members explore these recruiting challenges and develop effective preventions or contingencies for potential problems.

Who will participate in implementing this project?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What cultural, geographic, or other international considerations are likely to impact this project?
  • What geographic and cultural representation will be needed on the team to best meet project planning and implementation requirements?
  • Who are the strong influencers in all aspects of the project and what are their cultural orientations likely to be?
  • What activities will be needed to ensure that strong influencer needs are managed in culturally appropriate ways?

Who will be affected by this project?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What individuals or organizations around the world are likely to be impacted by this project?
  • How do we know?
  • What is our plan to deal with these global impacts?
  • Who are the strong influencers that should be considered and what are their multi-cultural perspectives?

Who will be responsible for post-implementation support, maintenance, sustaining effort, etc.?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What global resources will be available for post-implementation support?
  • What cultural challenges must be overcome to mobilize these resources?
  • Who are the strong influencers around the world that must be considered in developing the post-implementation plan?
  • How might each of the Four Key Variables of International Projects impact this post-implementation planning?

Who can significantly impact the success of this project?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • Who are the strong influencers around the world who could seriously impact the success of this project?
  • Who on the team has sensitivity to specific multi-cultural issues, some of them not readily obvious?
  • Has a plan been crafted to ensure that all strong influencers of this project have been identified and their cultural concerns addressed?
  • Who is responsible for ensuring that this plan is successfully implemented throughout the lifecycle of the project?

Example:  The Customer for your project is a German company where plans, once submitted, are expected to be followed.  Your team’s plans for Phase I were recently submitted to the Customer team and accepted enthusiastically.  Now the head of an internal supplier organization in your Singapore branch has called with concerns about the buy-in of several of his key leaders.  He wants time to brief them more thoroughly.  You thought he had already communicated the Phase I plan to key members of his organization through an e-mail message.  You check with a Chinese member of the project and learn that simple e-mail communication to the Singapore leaders may not be sufficient to get needed buy-in.

Remembering the Four Key Variables of International Projects, you check with team members and others having good insights into the needs of strong project influencers from high-context cultures, where decisions are often reached on the basis of strong, time-tested relationships. You work out a series of compromises with your German Customers regarding delays resulting from the Singapore situation.  You then convene a conference call with members of your team, many of who are located at overseas branches.

During this conference call, the team reviews the Stakeholder Identification Template, and with the Four Key Variables of International Projects as a guide, identifies special context, power/status, time or information path needs of individuals associated with the project.   Special attention is given to strong influencers.

Managing International Projects – Part 2

February 6, 2017

This is the second in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with project scope definition.

Tips for International Projects

  • Test project outcome “facts” as if they were assumptions
  • Surface assumptions early and often
  • Look for constraints around cultural and regulatory issues
  • Document success criteria and share them with the customer
  • Seek “middle ground” resolution of multicultural issues

The information and recommendations in this blog reflect the Four Key International Variables as documented by O’Hara and Johansen in their book GlobalWork.

 Cultural diversity, distances and other variables greatly increase the potential for misunderstanding within international projects.  For that reason, the team must ensure that all stakeholders in an international project, including Customers, suppliers and project team members, clearly understand and support project outcomes and their accompanying success criteria, constraints and assumptions.

Information on events leading up to the start of a project could provide valuable information for addressing measures of success, identifying constraints or examining assumptions within one or more unfamiliar cultures.  Clarity on the need, opportunity or issue addressed by a project could provide useful cultural insights.  And, of course, clear identification of the project Customer is essential regardless of the cultural setting.

Particular attention should be paid to the following four Critical Planning Questions.  These should be tested frequently against the Four Key International Variables of Context, Power/Status, Time and Information Paths.

What criteria will be used to measure success or failure?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What cultural issues may influence project success/failure criteria?
  • Do specific individuals have unusually strong influence over the success/failure criteria?  Who are they?  Why are they important?  What multicultural patterns do they represent?
  • What cultural issues might influence successful adherence to deadlines?
  • How might multicultural information flow issues influence project success/failure?

What constraints will affect how this project is implemented?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • Who around the world must be kept informed of project progress and outcomes?
  • What global resources, ideas, approaches and other conditions are usable or off-limits?
  • How should information be delivered to specific multinational individuals or groups regarding project progress or outcomes?
  • Are any of the constraints negotiable and if so, who should be consulted?
  • What international legal, customs, transit and other issues must be considered?
  • How concrete are project time constraints and how might they be influenced by multicultural perspectives?
  • Who might change the deadlines and why?

What assumptions are currently being made regarding this project?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • What do members of different cultures on the team believe to be true about this project?
  • What is our plan to resolve differences about these beliefs?
  • What would be the likely cross-cultural impact if these assumptions prove true?  False?
  • How likely is our Customer to have multi-cultural assumptions about this project?  How will we test for these assumptions?  What impact might they have on team members’ multi-cultural views?
  • What is our strategy to manage these multi-cultural assumptions if they prove true?  False?

How will this project affect other people, groups or projects?

Supplemental International Testing Questions:

  • Whose work around the world might be impacted by this project?
  • What multicultural influences should be considered?
  • How do I know this?

Example:  Your project team, part of a North American company, has members from Mexico,Brazil,Korea,Switzerland,Germany and Canada.  Your Customer for an electrical engineering product development project is a Chinese company.  The Customer expects Phase I of the project to be finished in 30 days.

Deliverables include detailed production specifications.  The Customer insists that you add a nuclear physicist from his organization as an ex-officio advisor.  You test your team for assumptions and learn that:

  • The member from Switzerland doesn’t think the physicist is really necessary.
  • The member from Mexico wants to check with the leadership from his home organization committing to the 30-day deadline.
  • The member from Brazil doesn’t think the Customer is deeply committed to the 30-day deadline.
  • The member from Germany thinks a detailed background report should accompany the production specifications.
  • The member from Canada thinks a second physicist should be added from the Customer organization.

You hold a meeting to address these and other assumptions.  You post the assumptions on the walls and discuss each one fully, being sensitive to the different cultural perspectives.  You then put the team to work finding compromise resolutions to issues raised by these assumptions.  A criteria for these compromises is determination of Customer needs.  You then bring these concerns, and their recommended resolutions, to an informal meeting with a Customer representative whose multicultural views you have come to value.  He provides valuable insights that you later share with the team.

Managing International Projects – Part 1

January 6, 2017

This is the first in a series of nine blogs that provide insight and tips on managing international projects.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with general international project implications.

Tips for International Projects

  • Test everything – appearances can be deceiving
  • Seek the “middle ground” in resolving multi-cultural differences
  • Listen to the people who have “been there”
  • Research cultures relevant to your project
  • Ask the Supplemental International Testing Questions/Create your own testing questions

The Challenges

International projects increase the need for a systems approach to project management.  Members of international project teams must overcome the usual project management challenges, along with additional risks posed by such factors as:

Cultural diversity:  Representatives of two or more differing cultural systems must work together on a project team.  In addition, Customers or suppliers may be members of cultures different from those of team members.

Distance:  Team members must respond effectively to each other’s needs, or Customer/supplier needs, across continents or oceans.

Language:  Speakers of a variety of languages must find effective ways to understand each other.

Diverse laws, trade conditions and business operating requirements:   In planning and implementing their project, team members must consider such issues as multiple import or tax regulations, differing currency values, and a variety of multi-national operating procedures.

Logistics:  Team members must consider differing transportation systems, terrain or climate conditions.

Supplemental International Testing Questions

These supplemental international testing questions are fashioned around four Key Variables of International Projects.  The variables, based on the findings of Mary O’Hara-Devereaux and Robert Johansen in their book GlobalWork, David Victor, in his book International Business Communication, and other recent global-business scholarship, are discussed here in broad terms to provide a sense of prevailing cultural conditions.  Variations can be expected within specific cultural groups.

The Four Key Variables of International Projects are:

Context:  Context represents the filters by which members of a cultural system give meaning to events and information around them.  Members of high-context cultures, often representing Asian or Latin countries, may tend to view as important, the conditions surrounding events or communication experiences and the status or position of individuals involved in these events or activities.  In a high-context environment, the conditions surrounding such experiences may have more meaning than their actual content.  Members of low-context cultures, often representing North American or Northern European countries, may attach more meaning to the facts of an event or communication activity than to the surrounding people or conditions.  The value of an event or communication will be determined more by what occurred or was said than by who was involved.

Example:  A project team must request resources needed to achieve a desired Customer outcome.  In a high-context culture, considerable time would be spent determining whom the most appropriate person would be to convey and receive the request and how its submission should be coordinated with other events, in and outside of the organization.  Issues such as status, formal and informal power relationships, gender and longevity with the organization would be carefully assessed.  The actual wording of the request itself might be relatively vague.  In a low-context culture, planning for acquisition of resources would likely emphasize a well-reasoned, effectively worded case for a favorable decision.  The request itself might be delivered rather informally through office e-mail or through a presentation by a junior team member.

Power/Status:  Asian and Latin cultures tend to have more rigid power structures, often influenced by family connections, longevity, wealth or other factors beyond actual job performance.  Decision making and other organizational events may be hierarchical.  In North American and Northern European cultures, power may be assigned more on the basis of earned position, professional credentials or distinguished performance.  In these regions, organizations are likely to be flatter, with more decision-making at the daily operating levels.

Example:  A project team needs someone with electrical engineering expertise.  In a culture where deference is made to rigid, hierarchical power structures, final selection of such a new team member may take extra time as compromises are worked out among a variety of individuals and power centers.  In a culture valuing flatter, less hierarchical decision-making, the team may determine who it needs, request services directly from the appropriate individual and inform various supervisors after the fact.

Time:  Members of Asian and Latin cultures tend to view time as a long-term continuum extending from the distant past through the present and into the distant future.  The nature of relationships within this sweep of time are often more important that the precise unfolding of events according to a rigid schedule.  A number of activities may be scheduled simultaneously in such culture groups, with completion deadlines often weighted against such context considerations as power, long-term benefits to the individual or the perceived value of a relationship with a key project stakeholder.  Members of North American and Northern European culture groups may put more emphasis on completing a single task before beginning a new one.  Focus may be on successful meeting of a specific deadline or commitment for the sake of the deadline.

Example:  A project team has scheduled a meeting for 1 p.m. Tuesday.  Members from more schedule-focused cultures can be expected to arrive early or apologize profusely if they are a few minutes late.  Members from less time-focused cultures may arrive half an hour or more after the designated start time and make no effort to justify their tardiness.  They assume the others appreciate their need to conduct several hallway discussions with long-time colleagues on the way to the meeting room.

Information Paths:  O’Hara-Devereaux and Johansen describe information flow in cultures as “both the path and the speed of communication…How fast does a message travel from one part of the organization to another.”  In many high-context cultures with their heavy emphasis on relationships, information is likely to travel via complex, time-consuming routes, with connections made to many individuals with little or no evident involvement in the project.  By contrast, information in lower-context cultures may be delivered with emphasis on efficiency and involvement of the least number of people to get the job done effectively.

Example:  A change in a project plan activity has been agreed upon with the Customer.  In a more relationship-driven culture, information about the change would be widely communicated.  Depending on power considerations, the change might also have to be approved by several people along this information path.  In a lower-context, more event-oriented culture, information about the change is likely to be sent only to those directly involved in its successful completion.  Others might be informed on an FYI basis at best.

Stakeholder Analysis – Part 1

December 6, 2016

The rule rather than the exception is that some stakeholders will love the solution you have defined while others will find it unacceptable, unworkable, or simply ludicrous.  Many projects have been scrubbed because a high influence stakeholder did not have a relationship with a project leader and felt they weren’t given adequate opportunity for input in the planning process.

To find some balance or common ground, use the Stakeholder Analysis, which consists of two parts:

  1. Stakeholder Solution Assessment (SSA): designed to identify what stakeholders do/do not like about the proposed solution.
  2. Stakeholder Issue Resolution (SIR): designed to manage concerns about the solution voiced by stakeholders.

A good idea that never gets implemented is no better than a bad idea.  When good ideas are implemented, the team wins, the organization wins, and the customer wins.

Good ideas emerge from open discussion and debate between suppliers and clients in  stable, productive relationships.  The SSA and SIR will facilitate this process.

These steps will lead you through a successful Stakeholder Analysis:

  • Identify all key stakeholders
  • Conduct a Stakeholder Solution Assessment to surface concerns
  • Address concerns through Stakeholder Issue Resolution
  • Present to key stakeholders, seeking:
    • Acceptance, then
    • Support, and finally
    • Approval

The objective of the Stakeholder Analysis is to promote a high level of acceptance of the team’s solution.  By doing so, the probability of successful implementation is taken to a new level.

Identifying Key Stakeholders

To implement a solution, it must be supported by the right people.  You must develop strong and functional relationships with everyone who will approve, implement, be affected by, or simply support the solution.

The people whose support is needed are:

  • Those who must formally approve the solution
  • Those who must implement the solution
  • Those who must live with the solution
  • Those who must informally support the solution

Those who must formally approve the solution.  This might be one person or a small group.  Typically it is the person who has the final say. Budget and other resources may be involved.  It then may be the person(s) with expenditure authority.  Without formal approval, everything comes to a halt.

Those who must implement the solution.  The people who must implement the solution must support it.  Some of these people may be members of the team.  It depends on the nature of the idea being proposed.  There may be a number of people involved.  For example, the team may have representatives from production, maintenance, engineering, or scheduling.  Their solution may include changing the documentation for reporting on production output or machine up-time.  The solution may involve others from these departments.  It may also involve accounting, purchasing and shipping.

It may not be practical to get the support of everyone included.  However, identifying key stakeholders is critical.  Key stakeholders are formal or informal leaders in groups or departments responsible for implementation of the solution.

Without support of key stakeholders, problems will arise.  The end result may be failed implementation.  Also, there may be a perception that the team came up with a bad idea.

Those who must live with the solution.  The people directly affected by the solution are often those who implement it.  However, they may be a different group altogether.  For example, a team proposes a new office layout.  The team will also be involved with implementation.  Programmers, engineers, and others who work in the office will live with the new layout.  They will not be actively involved in implementing change.  Their support is important, however.  Without it, failure is likely.

Those who must informally support the solution.  This group fits none of the previous categories.  However, they are still important to success.  They are often referred to as “champions” or “advocates”.  They command respect within the organization.  Therefore, their support is extremely valuable.

This group may include top managers with little or no involvement with the implementation.  Or, they may be very much part of the solution.  In either case, they have clear influence with people in the previous categories.  In particular, they have influence with those whose approval is needed.

For differing reasons, these people must support the solution.  Their support is necessary for successful implementation.  Identifying them is crucial to identifying key stakeholders.

The Role of Influence

Projects do not run in a vacuum.  In addition to the impact the project has on the people who are responsible for conducting it, every project affects other individuals, groups, and even other projects.  This means that a lot of people in the organization will take an interest in your project, for a wide variety of reasons.  And where there is interest, there is also influence.

Webster defines influence very simply: “the power to affect others.”  Your challenge is to identify the source of the power, and the intent of the change, in order to secure the success of your project.  The best, and perhaps only, way to do this is to develop good working relationships with all project stakeholders.

First let’s consider where influencers get their power.  These four categories are not exhaustive, but cover the most common situations.

  1. Position: Department Heads, Plant Managers, Account Representatives, etc., can wield significant influence through the power vested in their position.  Influential moves by these people will most likely come “through channels” (i.e., visible and documented efforts to change the project).
  2. Competence: Every project has its complement of subject matter experts.  These people exert influence through advice and/or criticism.  Their efforts can be upfront and formal (e.g., reports at project review meetings) or subtle (side conversations to influence team members).
  3. Affiliation: Every organization has its share of unofficial groups and cliques.  Individuals who have participated on previous high-profile projects, been successful in winning large accounts, or are on the “fast track” may have the right affiliation to impact change in your project.  They are most effective influencing other people who would like to join their club.
  4. Politics: You can name at least a half-dozen people (managers as well as individual contributors) who are “connected”.  These people have the ear of key decision makers and can exercise significant influence without ever speaking to you.

You cannot change the source of anyone’s ability to influence or their intent to exercise that influence.  What you can do is influence the influence.  You do this by learning their interests and needs surrounding your project, surfacing any dislikes or concerns, and using the four dimensions of relationship management to dissipate any negative consequences their influence may create.

One last point – influence is not always negative or destructive.  Developing close relationships with stakeholders will also reveal your supporters and advocates.  The better you are at positioning your project for meeting the needs of these important people, the more you will enjoy their benevolent influence.

Relationship Planning

October 4, 2016

This is the tenth in a series of 12 blogs that provide insight and tips on managing client relationships.  In this blog, we’ll discuss issues and solutions associated with relationship planning.

Now What?

“The problem with Heaven is what you have to do to get there.”   – Unknown

This is not about project planning.  It’s about making project planning successful.

You may also have heard the phrase “It is much easier to do than it is to plan to do.”  Our jobs and lives are so full that we feel compelled to keep accomplishing and just can’t find the time to think ahead and get organized.  We get caught reacting to fires rather than proactively installing the sprinklers.  In projects, it isn’t just important to create a solid plan, it is imperative.

By now you have:

  • Diagnosed the current situation
  • Defined the best solution for your client
  • Received approval from key stakeholders

Now it’s time to turn your attention to designing a workable, attainable implementation plan.  A little forethought and planning will go a long way to avoid the pitfalls that accompany a “ready-fire-aim” approach to implementation.

The actual planning process is really quite straightforward.  It simply describes the following considerations:

  • What actions need to occur?
  • When will each action be started/completed?
  • Who will be responsible for each action:
  • How much will it all cost?

Everyone On-Board

The real challenge in defining and holding to a plan is “keeping all the bayonets pointed outside the fort” during the process.  Since most project teams are cross-functional in their membership make-up, there may be as many planning models in the team as there are members.  For instance, Information technology people may be familiar with a planning model driven by a sophisticated software program, whereas marketing people are more comfortable with hard copy calendars and spreadsheet forecasts.

The nature of an interdisciplinary team of people with diverse skills and interests presents you with a unique challenge as a relationship manager.  this is the “formation stage” of team performance, and you must be prepared to hear all the input, involve all the players, and facilitate agreement on a planning process.

Pursue these steps with your team and the client:

  • Agree that planning is key to project success
  • Commit to a single planning model that everyone can use
  • Apply the model consistently throughout the project life cycle

Below are five phrases which could define project outcomes in just about any organization. Experience with numerous project teams combined with survey input from hundreds of project professionals suggest that the most influential factor affecting project success is shared ownership of the plan and teamwork to implement it.

Bottom line – your role is to pull the project off – on time, under budget, and exceeding client expectations.  This can only be accomplished by carefully managing relationships, in the team and among the stakeholders, while keeping the project on track and up to speed.

project-success-continuum

Project Success Continuum

Relationship Planning

Don’t waste time constructing a plan until you have thoroughly explored the needs and expectations of your stakeholders.  We have emphasized the value of managing relationships with your stakeholders in previous stages, but it is even more critical here.  If an important stakeholder hears about your project from anyone other than you, or at any time after planning has begun, you have one strike against you.

If a key stakeholder is taken by surprise, gets angry, or perhaps worst case, feels embarrassed by being out of the loop, the relationship that will be tested is with you.  It is a test you don’t want to take.

When the plan takes shape, it will include firm requirements for people and resources.  This requires a budget, and that leads to spending.  And when money starts getting spent, stakeholders pay close attention.

To remain on-board with you, they will need information in advance.  Managing stakeholder information needs is a critical part of relationship management.

Some stakeholders are part of the core team and participate in every step of the planning process.  Other stakeholders function on the project perimeter, and have roles as decision makers or influencers.

Regardless of their level of relationship to the planning process, all stakeholders must be consulted before the planning process begins.